Elementary Baronh Grammar

Among Baronh words, only nouns, pronouns and verbs have inflections.

Nouns and pronouns

Both nouns and pronouns have inflections in seven cases:

subject of a sentence, vocation; simply representation of words.
direct object.
possession, derivation; sometimes subject of subjunctive clauses.
indirect object.
originally destination of moving; simply location in modern Baronh.
start point of moving; making independent abbrative phrases.
instrumentals of action; predicates in "A ane B"(A is B) structural sentences.

There are four kinds of inflections in Baronh.

 case | Inflection 1 | Inflection 2 | Inflection 3 | Inflection 4
 nom. | abh          | lamh         | duc          | saidiac
 acc. | abe          | lame         | dul          | saidél
 gen. | bar          | lamr         | dur          | saidér
 dat. | bari         | lami         | duri         | saidéri
 dir. | baré         | lamé         | dugh         | saidégh
 abl. | abhar        | lamhar       | dusar        | saidisar
 inst.| bale         | lamle        | dule         | saidélé
 word | abh(a race)  | pearl, gem   | yellow gem   | pilot

(From Morioka Hiroyuki Seikai no Monsho III, Tokyo, 1996) p.264)

The predicate usage of the instrumental derives from Japanese phrase "A ha B de aru"(A is B). A noun with particle "de" shifted into <stem>-le form in Baronh, therefore "I am an Abh" is "F'a Bale" in Baronh, never "F'a Abh".

Both nouns and pronouns have cases, but nouns have neither gender nor number. Pronouns have cases and number but no gender. Third person pronouns are applied only to intellectuals, not to materials. If you intend to say 'she' or 'he', you can use nouns 'roc'(that mail person) or 'rénoc'(that female person) instead of pronouns.


Baronh verbs have a particular form whenever they are used. We call their forms conjugation. As same as its origin Japanese, Baronh verbs conjugate never according to both number and person, but to the modality. There is two elements in conjugation: modes and categories.


There are three modes in Baronh: indicative, particular and conditional. A sentence verb should take the indicative form or conditional one. A verb in indicative form expresses an action which really occur/ has occured or at least expected to really occur. On the other hand a verb in conditional form contains the speaker's suspicion it would not be realised somehow. The particular form appears only in subjunctive clauses or adjective usage of verbs.


Verb categories are classified in five: two modes(infinitive and imperative) and three aspects(perfect, progressive and previous). Therefore there is no "perfect infinitive" like Greek.

Not like as Indo-european languages here the infinitive form is not "infinitive" but a kind of finite which shows it contains no particular modalities expressed with another finite. For example in a sentence "Fe nége dal" ("I love you") here the verb 'nége' appears in its indicative infinitive form.


According to Morioka, Baronh has adjective, adverb, postposition and verb suffix beside the above. We suggest to add exclamation to his list.

Postposition is derived from Japanese particles and verb suffix from auxiliaries. The most important difference between Japanese auxiliaries and Baronh verb suffixes is found on their way of combination to verbs. In Japanese every auxiliaries successes to a verb: 'not write' is 'kaka-nai' in Japanese. On the other hand Baronh verb suffix is located between a verb stem and its conjugational ending, therefore the equivalent of 'kaka-nai' should be sacade(sace + ad: a verb suffix for negation), but not sacead.

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Our contents are based on Morioka Hiroyuki's novels Seikai no Monchou(Crest of the Stars), Seikai no Senki(Banner of the Stars) and any other subsequence products. See also our bibliography(in Japanese).
Most recent update: 5/14/2001
First publification: 4/20/2001
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